Calendar Year 2019
The Best Electron Microscopy Imaging Publication 2019 is awarded to Spencer Golze, a PhD candidate with Professor S. Neretina in the Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. Spencer and coworkers published a paper entitled "Plasmon-Mediated Synthesis of Periodic Arrays of Gold Nanoplates Using Substrate-Immobilized Seeds Line with Planar Defects".
The growth mechanisms and defect formation in Au seeds and nanoplates have been studied based on SEM and TEM analysis. A combination of High Resolution TEM and STEM imaging as well as Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) performed using an FEI Titan 80-300. TEM has been employed for structural and compositional characterization of the samples. TEM cross-sectional samples were prepared using an FEI Helios SEM/FIB dual beam tool. The cross-sectional TEM images provide evidence that Au seeds and the hexagonal nanoplates contain planar defects, twins, and stacking faults, that are parallel to the substrate surface. The presence of twins in the seeds and nanoplates is also evidenced by the corresponding electron diffraction pattern.
The Best Biological Imaging Publication 2019 is awarded to Cynthia Spires, a PhD candidate with Professor B. Smith in the Department of Chemistry. Cynthia and coworkers published a paper entitled "Paired Agent Fluorescence Imaging of Cancer in a Living Mouse Using Preassembled Squaraine Molecular Probes with Emission Wavelengths of 690 and 830nm".
New imaging methods were evaluated with targeted fluorescence probes for imaging cancer in a living mouse model. First, Single Agent Imaging (SAI) experiments compared tumor imaging performance of a targeted probe and untargeted probe in separate mouse cohorts. Subsequently, a mock surgery was performed that completely removed the fluorescently labeled tumor. Furthermore, there was imaging evidence for enhanced tumor accumulation of the targeted probe, but there was moderate scatter in the data due to tumor-to-tumor variability. A subsequent Paired Agent Imaging (PAI) study co-injected a binary mixture of targeted probe (with emission at 690 nm) and untargeted probe (with emission at 830 nm) into the same tumor-burdened animal. The pairing provides a correction factor that accounts for tumor-to-tumor variability in nonspecific probe uptake with statistically higher tumor uptake of the targeted probe using a much smaller cohort of mice. The imaging data from the PAI experiment was analyzed to determine the targeted probe’s Binding Potential (BP) for available integrin receptors within the tumor tissue. In addition, pixelated maps of BP within each tumor indicated a heterogenous spatial distribution of BP values. PAI is a promising new way to evaluate targeted fluorescent probes and eventual use in clinical applications.
The Best Artistic Image 2019 using the Nikon C2 instrument in the Optical Microscopy Facility is awarded to Brooke Chambers, a PhD candidate with Professor R. Wingert in the Department of Biological Sciences.
Featured is a reflected 10X image of a beautiful model organism, the Danio rerio embryo, commonly known as the zebrafish. At just 1 day post fertilization, the zebrafish has developed eye structures, a kidney tubule, and 28 chevron-shaped muscle units. Specifically, this whole mount immunofluorescent preparation labels laminin (basement membranes) in green and Slc12a1/2 expression (solute transporter proteins) in magenta. Because the embryonic zebrafish undergoes rapid organ formation and is optically transparent in nature, it is an ideal system for high resolution imaging of dynamic developmental processes. Although a simpler vertebrate species, the zebrafish exhibits striking genetic, cellular, and anatomical similarities to humans. This image brings to light the boundless potential of the zebrafish to model human disease and embryonic development.
Calendar Year 2018
The Best Electron Microscopy Imaging Publication 2018 is awarded to Michael Brennan, a PhD candidate with Professor M. Kuno in the Department of Chemistry. Brennan and coworkers published a paper entitled “Crystal Strucutre of Individual CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocubes”.
The exact crystal structure assumed by CsPbBr3 nanocubes (NCs) remains ambiguous, whether cubic or orthorhombic. Here the atomic structure of individual CsPbBr3 NCs is considered via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) defocus-series analyses. The technique entails acquiring lattice-resolved HRTEM images of individual NCs over progressive defocus values. CsPbBr3 NC atomic structure was evaluated by comparing acquired experimental data to simulated lattice-resolved images and corresponding Fourier transform patterns of both orthorhombic (Pnma) and cubic (Pm3̅ m) CsPbBr3 polymorphs. The analyses indicate that both polymorphs exist simultaneously for NCs with 10 nm edge lengths. When edge lengths are <5 nm, however, only cubic symmetry is observed signifying a potential size dependence to the crystal symmetry of CsPbBr3 NCs. Such structural measurements provide critical insight into elucidating the structure/(optical and electrical) function relationship of CsPbBr3 NCs.The study was published in Inorg. Chem. 2018, 58, 2, 1555-1560.
The Best Biological Imaging Publication 2018 is awarded to Yide Zhang, a PhD candidate in the Department of Electrical Engineering under the direction of Dr.Scott Howard. Zhang and coworkers published a paper entitled “Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy by stepwise optical saturation”.
This paper demonstrates true super-resolution microscopy using the NDIIF’s conventional fluorescence microscopes. Super-resolution microscopy is a ground breaking technology that allows researchers to see features smaller than the diffraction limit of light. Many techniques have been developed and used to produce significant biological results, and the impact of super-resolution microscopy was recognized in the awarding of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to the first pioneers in the field. However, these techniques require expensive specialized equipment and can be limited to simple samples. This paper describes and demonstrates a method for achieving super-resolution imaging using commonly available microscopes in a way that allows for 3D super-resolution imaging in scattering tissue. Super-resolution in this paper is accomplished through a new understanding of how focused light interacts with saturable fluorophores. This means that anyone currently using conventional scanning fluorescence microscopy can use the technique to improve their resolution. This is the first demonstration of the technique which subsequently has been used to achieve the first ever super-resolution frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and long-term, 3D in vivo imaging of zebrafish neurons during spinal chord formation.The study was published in Biomed. Opt. Express 9, 1613-1629 (2018).
Calendar Year 2017
Yuliya Klymenko, Jeffrey Johnson, Brandi Box, Rachel Lombard, Leigh Campbell, Elizabeth Loughran, and M. Sharon Stack, "Heterogeneous Cadherin Expression and Multicellular Aggregate Dynamics in Ovarian Cancer Dissemination." Neoplasia, 2017, 19 (7): 549-563, DOI: 10.1016/j.neo.2017.04.002
The Best Electron Beam Imaging Publication 2017 is awarded to Dr. Yuliya Klymenko in the group of Professor Sharon Stack, Director of Harper Cancer Research Institute and Professor in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry.
Klymenko and coworkers published a paper entitled “Heterogeneous cadherin expression and multicellular aggregate dynamics in ovarian cancer dissemination”. The study work used a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FEI Magellen) and a Transmission Electron Microscope (JEOL 1400) to evaluate the contribution of cellular cadherin composition to MCA phenotype by visualizing surface topography of 3-dimensional MCA’s grown in vitro using the panel of EOC cell lines, with high resolution and magnification ranges. Using these images, they were able to identify striking cadherin-dependent differences in aggregate surface ultrastructure. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that MCA cadherin composition impacts intraperitoneal cell and MCA dynamics and thereby affects ultimate metastatic success. The study was published in Neoplasia, 2017, 19 (7):549-63.
The study was published in Biomedical Optics Express, 2017, 8 (8): 3671-3686 .Peter Höök, Teresa Brito-Robinson, Oleg Kim, Cody Narcisco, Holly V. Goodson, John W. Weisel, Mark S. Alber, and Jeremiah J. Zartman. "Whole Blood Clot Optical Clearning for Nondestructive 3D Imaging and Quantitative Analysis." Biomedical Optics Exp., 2017, 8 (8): 3671-3686, DOI: 10.1364/BOE.8.003671
The Best Biological Imaging Publication 2017 is awarded to Dr Jeremiah Zartman, an Assistant Professor in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering.
Zartman and coworkers, including Professor Albers and Professor Goodson published a paper entitled “Whole blood clot optical clearing for nondestructive 3D imaging and quantitative analysis”. The study addressed an optimized optical clearing method termed cCLOT that renders large whole blood clots transparent and allows confocal fluorescence microscopy close to one millimeter inside the clot. Zartman validated the utility of cCLOT by demonstrating a quantitative structural difference in the fibrin network appearance when clot contraction is impaired pharmacologically with blebbistatin. The group also measured erythrocyte volumes at different depths inside clots and showed the volume remains the same during contraction, suggesting that contraction depends solely on reducing extracellular space. This finding indicates that clot contraction is not due to osmotic changes in erythrocytes but rather due to a higher compaction of the cells.
Calendar Year 2016
C. Shuck, J. Pauls and A. Mukasyan, "Ni/Al Energetic Nanocomposites and the Solid Flame Phenomenon." J. Phys. Chem. C, 2016, Volume 120, 27066-27078. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b009754
The Best Electron Beam Imaging Publication 2016 is awarded to Christopher Shuck, a graduate student working with Professor A. Mukasyan in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. Shuck and coworkers published a paper entitled “Ni/Al Energetic Nanocomposites and the Solid Flame Phenomenon”. The study work used a Focused Ion Beam (FIB) instrument to collect thousands of images of the nanocomposite Ni/Al system with nanometer accuracy. Using these images, the internal structure of the nanocomposite material was quantitatively analyzed using 3D reconstruction techniques. They determined surface contact between the reactants, layer thickness distributions, and then related them in a quantitative fashion to observed properties. The study was published in The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2016, 120, 27066.
The Best Biological Imaging Publication 2016 is awarded to Dr. Eamonn Kennedy, apost-doctoral fellow collaborating with Professor G. Timp in the Departments of Electrical Engineering and Biological Sciences.
E. Kennedy, E. Nelson, T. Tanaka, J. Damiano, and G. Timp. "Live Bacterial Physiology Visualized with 5nm Resolution Using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy." ACS Nano, 2017, Volume 10, PP. 2669-2677. DOI: 10.1021/acsnano5b07697.
Kennedy and coworkers published a paper entitled “Live Bacterial Physiology Visualized with 5 nm Resolution Using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy”. The study addressed a major limitation of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), that living cells cannot be maintained under the high vacuum imaging conditions. Combining live cell fluorescence microscopy with a new technique that permits TEM analysis within a sealed chamber of liquid held inside the Titan microscope, the team was able to visualize at nanometer resolution the infection of a living bacterial cell with bacteriophage virus without compromising cell viability. The study was published in ACS Nano, 2016, 10, 2669.E. Kennedy, Edward Nelson, T. Tanaka, J. Damiano, and G. Timp, "Live Bacterial Physiology Visualized with 5nm Resolution Using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy, ACS Nano 2016, Volume 10, pp. 2669-2677. DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b07697.
Calendar Year 2015
The Best Electron Microscopy Imaging Publication 2015 is awarded to Sara Fathipour, a graduate student with Professor A. Seabaugh in the Department of Electrical Engineering.
S. Fathipour, M. Remskar, A. Varlec, A. Ajoy, R. Yan, S. Vishwanath, S. Rouvimov, W. S. Hwang, H. G. Xing, D. Jena and A. Seabaugh, “Synthesized multiwall MoS2 nanotube and nanoribbon field-effect transistors, “ Appl. Phys. Lett., 2015, Volume 106, 022114.
Fathipour and coworkers published a paper entitled “Synthesized Multiwall MoS2 Nanotube and Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistors”. Using advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy, the study revealed surprising physical attributes of MoS2 nanotubes grown by chemical vapor transport and used as the channel in field effect transistors. Instead of being cylindrical in geometry the tubes have an ellipsoidal cross section with a semimajor axis of ~60 nm, a semiminor axis of ~30 nm, and a bending radius on the order of 2 nm. The transistors have ON/OFF current ratios more than 20 x greater than MoS2 nanotubes field effect transistors grown by other methods. The study was published in Appl. Phys. Lett. 2015, 106, 022114.
The Best Biological Imaging Publication 2015 is awarded to Dr. Manuela Lahne, a Research Assistant Professor collaborating with Professor D. Hyde in the Department of Biological Sciences and the Center for Zebrafish Research.
Manuela Lahne, Jingling Li, Rebecca M. Marton, & David R. Hyde, “Actin-Cytoskeleton- and Rock-Mediated INM are required for Photoreceptor Regeneration in the Adult Zebrafish Retina.” J. Neurosci., 2015, Nov. 25;35(47):15612-34. Doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5005-14.2015.p
Lahne and coworkers published a paper entitled “Actin-Cytoskeleton- and Rock-Mediated INM Are Required for Photoreceptor Regeneration in the Adult Zebrafish Retina”. The study employed regular and multiphoton confocal cell microscopy to monitor in real time the behavior of Müller glia/neuronal progenitor cells in light damaged adult zebrafish retinal cultures. Continuous live cell imaging for several hours through the retinal thickness enabled observation of Müller glia/NPC nuclei migrating from the inner to the outer nuclear layer of the retina to divide before the majority of nuclei returned to the inner nuclear layer. The study was published in J. Neurosci. 2015, 35, 15612-34.
Calendar Year 2014
- The Best Electron Microscopy Imaging Publication 2014 is awarded to Dr. Rajesh Sahadevan, a post-doctoral research associate with Professor W. A. Philip in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering.
- The Best Biological Imaging Publication 2014 is awarded to Lisa Cole a graduate student with Professor R. K. Roeder in the Bioengineering Graduate Program, Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, and a collaborator with Professor T. Vargo-Gogola in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine-South Bend.
Calendar Year 2013
- The 2013 Best Biological Imaging Publication was awarded to Giles E. Duffield, associate professor of biological sciences.
- The 2013 Best Electron Microscopy Imaging Publication 2013 was awarded to Khachatur V. Manukyan, Ph.D., a post-doctoral research associate in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering.